Compendium of

Gender Scales

Gender Relations Scale

Scale Objective

To measure equity and power within intimate relationships

Type(s) of Behavior or Outcomes Predicted

Use of a modern contraceptive method

Types of Items Included

Number of Items and Subscales

Equity/Subscale Items

Power/Subscale Items

Scoring Procedures

Participants were read each item and asked whether they agreed, disagreed, or were unsure. Each positive response was coded as 1 and each negative and unsure response was coded as 0. The scales were created by summing items within each scale. A higher score on the equity subscale indicated more equitable attitudes toward gender roles. A higher score on the power subscale indicated more perceived personal agency or power in a relationship.

Psychometrics Used in Scale Construction

Factor analysis

Type(s) of Statistics Used to Test Predictive Validity

Bivariate and logistic regression

Used with Women

Yes (N=1200)

Used with Men

Yes (N=600)

Countries

Additional Information on the Scale

Items were derived from the GEM Scale and SRPS (scales 4 and 8 in this compendium). Study findings showed that the GEM Scale and SRPS, originally developed separately for men and women, can be used to collect data from both. Gender differences are evident in how questions are answered and in the relative importance of power and equity in influencing contraceptive use.

Increased power appears to be associated with increased contraceptive use for men and for some women, while more gender-equitable attitudes have a greater influence in shaping contraceptive use among women than men. Additional qualitative research is needed to address how subscale items are perceived and the extent to which they capture local understandings of gender norms and behaviors. Further work with larger sample sizes is also needed to confirm findings, since existing samples may not have sufficient statistical power to detect differences in contraceptive use across the elements of power and equity.

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