Compendium of

Gender Scales

Gender Equitable Men (GEM) Scale

Scale Objective

To measure attitudes toward gender norms in intimate relationships or differing social expectations for men and women

Type(s) Of Behavior Or Outcomes Predicted

Types of Items Included

Number of Items and Subscales

The number of items varies in different country applications of the GEM Scale. For example, the India adaptation had 15: 11 original items and 4 new items specific to the country. The Ethiopian adaptation

Violence Domain Items

Sexual Relationships Domain Items

Reproductive Health and Disease Prevention Domain Items

Domestic Chores and Daily Life Domain Items

Scoring Procedures

Psychometrics Used in Scale Construction

Estimates of internal consistency vary in different country applications. For the Indian adaptation of the GEM Scale, alpha = .75. For the Ethiopian adaptation, alpha = .88

Type(s) of Statistics Used to Test Predictive Validity

Used with Women


Used with Men


Country or Countries Where Tested or Applied

Additional Information

Findings suggest the GEM Scale is a sensitive and cross-culturally relevant tool that has good predictive validity. The "inequitable" subscale is more consistently reliable than the "equitable" subscale. Adaptations in multiple contexts have worked well. Items that relate to homosexuality have often been removed in adaptations of the scale.



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