Gender Norm Attitudes Scale
To measure egalitarian beliefs about male and female gender norms
Type(s) of Behavior or Outcomes Predicted
- Condom use
Types of Items Included
- Belief in and promotion of equity for girls and women
- Belief in maintaining the rights and privileges of men
Number of Items and Subscales
- 14 items
- 2 subscales
Rights and Privileges of Men Subscale Items
Respondents were asked if they agreed or disagreed with each item.
- It is important that sons have more education than daughters.
- Daughters should be sent to school only if they are not needed to help at home.
- The most important reason that sons should be more educated than daughters is so that they can better
- If there is a limited amount of money to pay for tutoring, it should be spent on sons first.
- A woman should take good care of her own children and not worry about other people's affairs.
- Women should leave politics to the men.
- A woman has to have a husband or sons or some other male kinsman to protect her.
- The only thing a woman can really rely on in her old age is her sons.
- A good woman never questions her husband's opinions, even if she is not sure she agrees with them.
- When it is a question of children's health, it is best to do whatever the father wants.
Equity For Girls Subscale Items
- Daughters should be able to work outside the home after they have children if they want to.
- Daughters should have just the same chance to work outside the homes as sons.
- Daughters should be told that an important reason not to have too many children is so they can work outside the home and earn money.
- I would like my daughter to be able to work outside the home so she can support herself if necessary.
On the rights and privileges of men subscale, less agreement with men having more rights and privileges than women reflects a more egalitarian perspective. Reverse scoring was used for the equity for girls subscale, with 1 representing a traditional response and 2 an egalitarian response. Scores were computed as the mean of individual items, expressed as a continuum from traditional beliefs (on the lower end) to egalitarian beliefs. Higher scores on both of the subscales indicated more egalitarian beliefs.
Psychometrics Used in Scale Construction
- Factor analytic techniques
- Estimate of internal consistency (alpha) = .70 (Subscale 1: Rights and privileges of men)
- Estimate of internal consistency (alpha) = .67 (Subscale 2: Equity for girls)
Type(s) of Statistics Used to Test Predictive Validity
- Bivariate analysis
- Multivariate hierarchical regression
Used with Women
Used with Men
Country or Countries Where Tested or Applied
- Waszak, C, JL Severy, L Kafafi, and I Badawi. 2000. Fertility behavior and psychological stress: The mediating influence of gender norm beliefs among Egyptian women. Psychology of Women Quarterly 25:197–208.